Biyernes, Mayo 18, 2012

Central and Eastern Visayas Literature

Sicalac and Sicavay
(A Visayan Creation Myth)
Once there were two gods, Captan and Maguayan.One day, Captan planted a bamboo in agarden. It grew and split into two sections, and stepped out a man who was named Sicalac andwoman named Sicavay.Sicalac asked Sicavay's hand for marriage because there were no other people on earth.She refused because they were brother and sister, having been conceived out of the same reed.Sicalac persistently pleaded with her and finally they decided to consult the tunas of the sea, thedoves of the air and the earthquake, who agreed that they should marry so that the world will be populated. Finally, they decided to go ahead and got married and had a son named Sibo. Thenthey had a daughter named Samar. Sibo and Samar had a daughter named Luplupan who grewup and married Pandaguan, who was also a son of Sicalac and Sicavay. Lupluban and Pandaguanhad a son named Anoranor.Pandaguan invented the fishing net and he caught a shark when he used it but the shark did not survive for long out of the water. He cried loudly to the Gods.The god Captan, sent the flies to find out why Pandaguan was making such a loud lamentation but the flies refused to obey so they were condemned to scavenge among filthy and rotten thingsfrom then on. Then, the god sent the weevils and he discovered about Pandaguan’s grief and he
struck him dead by a thunderbolt. Pandaguan stayed in the infernal regions but the gods took pityon him and brought him back to the world.Pandaguan discovered that his wife Luplupan became the concubine of Maracoyrun.Pandaguan got angry and went back to infernal regions, vowing never to return to the world.

MYTH--a myth is defined as a sacred narrative explaining how the world and humankind came to be in their present form.
The story is about how the first people appeared on earth*It tells a story of equal birthing of man and woman throughout the archipelago that assert a woman’s equal position with a man within the tribal systems.
Moral Lesson:
We should only do things or decisions as long as it is necessary and acceptable.*We should always accept that things happen for a reason and that all things on Earth come to an end*We should obey the authority for us to be safe but, we should also remember to obey only those that obey the moral policies or rules.*We should be careful not to love or marry somebody else other than the one we married and we have promised to love forever because it is one of God’s will.


Matud nila ako dili angay
Nga magmamanggad sa imong gugma,
Matud nila ikaw dili malipay,
Kai WA ako'y bahanding nga kanimo igasa,

Gugmang putli Mao day pasalig
Maoy bahanding labaw sa bulawan
Matud nila kaanugon lamang
Sa imong gugma ug parayeg,

Dili maluba kining pagbati
Bisan sa unsa nga katarungan
Kay unsa pay bili ning kinabuhi
Kon sa gugma mo hinikawan

Ingna ko nga dili ka motuo
Sa mga pagtamay kong naangkon
Ingna ko nga dili mo kawangon
Damgo ko'g pasalig sa gugma mo


Folksong: Most commonly used to refer to a narrative song that uses traditional melodies to speak on a particular topic. Often, topical folk songs address social and political issues such as work, war, and popular opinion.
Origin: Cebu (Central Visayas)
Its lyrics depict a romantic love, usually portraying the hopeless pleadings of a lover willing to sacrifice everything on behalf of his beloved.It is a mournful wail of the rejected lover or the broken-hearted. It is a story of unrequited love.
Moral Lesson:
Love is not all about money. It is sometimes the acceptance and faith

(Folksong;Northern Samar)
Waray-Waray, pirme may upay
Mayda lubi, mayda pa humay
Iton dagat damo it isda
Ha bungto han mga Waray.

Waray-Waray pirme malipay
Di makuri igkasarangkay
Nag-iinom kon nagkikita
Bas' kamingaw mawara!

Lugar han mga Waray-Waray
Kadto-a naton, pasyadaha
Diri birilngon an kalipay
Labi nga gud kon may fiesta.

Mga tawo nga Waray-Waray
Basta magkita, mayda upay
Diri kabos hit pakig-angay
Sayod kamo basta Waray.

¡Waray-Waray! (Waray-Waray kabuhi maupay)
¡Waray-Waray! (Damo iton lubi pati humay)
¡Waray-Waray! (It mga dagat riko hin isda)
Ha bungto han mga Waray!

¡Waray-Waray! (Waray-Waray pirme la malipay)
¡Waray-Waray! (Diri makuri igkasarangkay)
¡Waray-Waray! (Nag-iirignom kon nagkikita)
Bas' kamingaw mawara!


Origin: Samar-Leyte
 The folksong Waray-Waray is a folksong from Samar-Leyte. The author of the song speaks of the good traits of the Waraynon and the abundance of his/her place. It describes the "Waray-Waray" as "pirmi malipay" (always happy), "di makuri igkasarangkay" (easy to befriend with) and "diri kabos hin pakig-angay" (hospitable, easy to get along with). The original version describes the Waraynon's place as "pirmi may upay, mayda lubi mayda pa humay" (abundant in coconuts and rice), "iton dagat puno hin isda" (the sea is teeming with fish) hence, the invitation, "kadtu-a naton pasyadaha" (let's go visit) because happiness is everywhere especially during fiesta (diri birilngon an kalipay, labi na gud kun may fiesta).


The Story of Alunsina and Datu Paubari
Kaptan, the king of the Gods, decreed that the beautiful Alunsina (also called Laun Sina, The Unmarried One) marry upon reaching her maidenhood. Though all the unmarried gods from every corner of the universe tried to win her hand in marriage, she chose to marry a mortal, Datu Paubari, ruler of the Halawod.
Angered by Alunsina's decision, her suitors conspired to harm the newlywed couple. Maklium-sa-t'wan, the god of the plains, called a council meeting of the Gods. The council decided to destroy the couple's home, Halawod, by flood. Fortunately for Alunsina and her husband, her sister Suklang Malayon (Goddess and Guardian of Happy Homes) discovered the evil plot and warned them of it. Before the flood, the new couple sought refuge on a higher ground and escaped the gods' wrath undetected. They returned to the plains and settled near the mouth of the Halawod River after the flood has subsided and lived in secrecy.
After several months, Alunsina became pregnant with triplets. The couple was ecstatic and Datu Paubari prepared the things needed for childbirth including the siklot. When the triplets were born, the couple called them Labaw Dongon, Humadapnon and Dumalapdap.
Immediately after giving birth, Alunsina summoned the high priest Bungot-Banwa to perform the rites of the gods of the Mount Madya-as to ensure that the triplets will have good health. During the ritual, Bungot-Banwa burned some alanghiran fronds and a pinch of kamangyan in an altar that he made himself. He opened the windows of the north side of the room after the ceremony and in came a cold wind that transformed the infants into strong, handsome young men.
The Adventures of Labaw Donggon
When he reached adulthood, Labaw Donggon, the eldest of the triplets, decided to go on a quest to find himself a wife. He heard of the beauty of Angoy Ginbitinan of Handug and wanted her for a wife. He asked his mother to prepare the things he will need for the journey -- a magic cape, hat and belt, and kampilan (sword).
The journey to Handug took several days. Labaw Donggon had to pass by plains, valleys and mountains to get there. When he finally arrived, he asked for an audience with Angoy Ginbitinan's father and asked for her hand in marriage. The father agreed in one condition: Labaw Donggon must kill the monster Manalintad as part of his dowry. Labaw Donggon agreed and went away to confront the monster. With the help of his magic belt, he was able to kill the Manalintad. He cut off the tail of the monster and brought it back to Handug as a proof of his victory. Angoy Gibintinan's father was satisfied with the proof and allowed Labaw Donggon to marry his daughter. After the wedding, Labaw Donggon and his new bride started their journey back to his home. Along the way, they met a group of young men who were on their way to Tarambang Burok to win the hand of Abyang Durunuun, sister of Sumpoy, the lord of the underworld. According to these young men, Abyang Durunuun has beauty that equals no other. Labaw Donggon and Angoy Gibintinan continued on their journey. Upon reaching home, Labaw Donggon asked his mother to take care of his new wife and told her that he will be going on another quest. This time he will be going to Tarambang Burok and vie for the hand of the beautiful Abyang Durunuun.
On his way to Tarambang Burok, Labaw Donggon had an encounter with the giant Sikay Padalogdog. This giant had a hundred arms and he won't let the young demi god pass without a fight. And fight they did. In the end, the hundred-armed giant admitted defeat and allowed the Labaw Donggon to pass the ridge.
Labaw Donggon won the hand of the legendary Abyang Durunuun and also took her home to his mother. Thereafter, the demi god went on third quest to Gadlum. This time the object of his desire is Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata, the young bride of the lord of darkness, Saragnayan.
Aboard his biday nga inagta (black boat), Labaw Donggon sailed across many seas on his way Gadlum. He also traveled across the region of the clouds and the land of stones before he found himself at the shores of Tulogmatian, the seaside fortress of Saragnayan. Upon setting foot on the shore, Saragnayan asked who he was and his business. When Labaw Donggon expressed his desire to have Saragnayan's young wife, the lord of darkness just laughed and told him it's impossible. The young demi god then challenged the Saragnayan to a duel for the hand of the beautiful Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata. The duel lasted for years. Labaw Donggon held Saragnayan's head underwater for seven years but the lord of the darkness still lived. With the help of his pamlang (amulet), Saragnayan defeated Labaw Donggon and imprisoned him beneath his house. Meanwhile, Labaw Donggon's two wives gave birth to a son each. Angoy Ginbitinan called her child Aso Mangga while Abyang Durunuun called her son Abyang Baranugon. Both sons went in search of their father a few days after they were born. They arrived in Tulogmatian and asked Saragnayan to free their father. Saragnayan told Abyang Baranugon to go home to his mother when he noticed that the young lad still has an umbilical cord. The young lad took offense and challenged the lord of the darkness to a duel.
Saragnayan accepted the challenge and fought with Abyang Baranugon. The lord of darkness was no match for the strength of Abyang Baranugon and was defeated in the process. Abyang Baranugon earned the freedom of his father and took him home.
The Adventures of Humadapnon
Meanwhile, the defeat of Labaw Donggon in the hands of Saragnayan and his subsequent imprisonment angered his brothers Humadapnon and Dumalapdap. Humadapnon swore to the gods of Madya-as and vowed that he would seek revenge on all of Saragnayan's kinsmen and followers. He then embarked on a journey to Saragnayan's. He took with him a man known for his exceptional swordsmanship, Buyong Matanayon of Mount Matiula. Together they traveled the same path that Labaw Donggon took.
The duo ended up at a place called Tarambang Buriraw. Here lives a seductive sorceress called Piganun. The sorceress changed herself into a very beautiful maiden and captured the heart of Humadapnon. No matter what Buyong Matanayon did, Humadapnon would not leave Tarambang Buriraw.
After seven months of staying in Tarambang Buriraw, Buyong Matanayon remembered that they brought some ginger with them. He thought of a plan to break Piganun's spell over his friend. One evening, at dinner, Buyong Matanayon threw seven slices of ginger into the fire . Upon smelling the burning ginger, Piganun ran away from the room. Buyong Matanayon struck Humadapnon in the head, which rendered the latter unconscious. He then dragged his body away from the place and managed to escape.
The duo continued with their trek and exacted revenge on all of Saragnayan's family and friend. They eventually found themselves in a place called Piniling Tubig. There was a big gathering when they arrived in the village because the ruler of the land, Datu Umbaw Pinaumbaw, was giving away the hand of his daughter in marriage to anyone who can remove the huge boulder that rolled off the mountain to the center of the village. No one has succeeded. Humadapnon rose to the challenge and took off his magic cape. He then used it to lift the huge boulder off the center of the village and hurled it back to the mountain. Datu Umbaw Pinaumbaw honored his word and gave his daughter's hand in marriage to Humadapnon. The two were married and a big feast was held. During the wedding feast, a guest minstrel sang and paid tribute to the beauty of Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan, the goddess of greed. Enchanted with the story, Humadapnon started on a quest to seek the goddess' hand in marriage.
He met Buyong Makabagting, son of the Datu Balahidyong of Paling Bukid, who was also hoping to win the hand of Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan. The two fought in a duel and Humadapnon emerged victorious. The defeated Buyong Makabagting helped Humadapnon in his quest. Humadapnon eventually married the goddess of greed and brought her home to his mother.
The Adventures of Dumalapdap
Shortly after Humadapnon left their home to seek revenge on Saragnayan's family and followers, Dumalapdap embarked on a quest of his own. He decided go to Burutlakan-ka-adlaw and marry the maiden Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokon. With him was Dumasig, the most powerful wrestler in Madya-as. After several months of traveling, the two warriors came face to face with a two headed monster called Balanakon. The monster guarded the ridge that led to the place where the maiden lived. They managed to kill the monster but were confronted with another kind of monster when they reached the gate of the palace whether the maiden lived. Called Uyutang, the monster was similar to a bat with sharp, poisonous claws.
Dumalapdap fought with the Uyutang for seven months. He was able to defeat the monster when he grabbed its ankle and broke it. Then he took his iwang daniwan (magic dagger) and struck Uyutang under the armpit. The monster howled in pain, causing an earthquake that broke the ridge they were fighting in into two. Half of the ridge became an island that is known today as Negros, while the other half became Panay.
With the monster Uyutang dead, Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokan was free to marry Dumalapdap. He brought her home and was reunited with his family. Datu Paubari celebrated the return of his three sons with a very big feast. His sons left for different parts of the world after the feast. Labaw Donggon ventured north, Humadapnon went south, and Dumalapdap embarked to the west. Datu Parubari was left to rule in the east.
The Quest of Humadapnon Continues
Humdapnon was visited by his spirit friends Taghoy and Duwindi in his dream and told him of lovely maiden who lived in a village by the mouth of the Halawod River. The demigod left his dominion to look for the maiden named Nagmalitong Yawa. He brought with him a boatful of crew. Humadapnon and his men safely traversed through a sea the color of human blood with the help of his spirit friends. They landed on an island that was inhabited by beautiful women and headed by the sorceress Ginmayunan. For seven years, Humadapnon and his crew were imprisoned in the island until Nagmalitong Yawa helped them escape by disguising as a boy. Humadapnon and Nagmalitong Yawa were married soon after in Halawod. During the wedding feast, Humadapnon's brother, Dumalapdap fell in love with Huyung Adlaw and asked his brother to help him talk to the parents of the maiden. Humadapnon left his new wife and accompanied his brother to the Upperworld where Huyung Adlaw lived.
It took the brothers seven years to come back from their journey to the Upperworld. They arrived just in time for the ceremony that will have Nagmalitong Yawa married to Buyung Sumagulung, an island fortress ruler, in a ceremony. The brothers were enraged and killed all the guests and the groom. Humadapnon also stabbed his wife because the treachery only to feel remorse later on. He asked his spirit friends and found out that his wife only agreed to marry Buyung Sumagulung because her mother, Matan-ayon, convinced her that Humadapnon is not coming back.
Upon learning of this, Humadapnon asked his sister, Labing Anyag, to use her powers to bring Nagmalitong Yawa back to life. Seeing how remorseful he is, Labing Anyag agreed. However, Nagmalitong Yawa was so ashamed of agreeing to marry Buyung Sumagulung that she ran away to the underworld and sought the protection of her uncle Panlinugun, who is lord of the earthquake.
Humadapnon had to kill an eight-headed snake in his pursuit of Nagmalitong Yawa. Then he had to duel with a young man who spirited his wife away. The duel ended when Alunsina intervened and revealed that the young man is also her son, Amarotha. This son died during childbirth and was brought back from the dead to keep Alunsina company. Alunsina decided that both Humadapnon and Amarotha deserved a piece of Nagmalitong Yawa so she cut the girl in half and gave a piece each to her sons. Each half turned into a whole live person. Humadapnon brought his wife back to Panay.

Epic: A long poetic composition usually centered upon a hero, in which a series of great achievements or events is narrated in elevated style.

Hinilawod is not just a literary piece but also a source of information about culture, religion and rituals of the ancient people of Sulod; showing us that ancient Filipinos believed in the “sacred,” in the importance of family honor and in personal courage and dignity.

Hinilawod, recounts the story of the exploits of three Sulodnon demigod brothers, Labaw Donggon, Humadapnon and Dumalapdap of ancient Panay. It would take about three days to perform the epic in its original form. Thus,making it as one of the longest epics in the world.
The term "Hinilawod" means “Tales From The Mouth of The Halawod River". Hinilawod is an epic poem written by the early inhabitants of a place called Sulod in central Panay.
This 28,000-verse epic is chanted when performed and would take about three days when performed in its original form, making it one of the longest epics known, alongside that of Tibet's Epic of King Gesar.

Hinilawod is one of the many pieces of oral literature passed from one generation to the next, changed and morphed by the mananalaysay to one degree or another as he told it to his audience.
Hinilawod was first discovered “by accident” in 1955, when F. Landa Jocano, Filipino anthropologist became interested in native folklore. He traveled the hinterlands of his home province, Panay, with two colleagues collecting folk songs, stories, and riddles. It was during one of those trips to the upland barrios of Lambunao, Maasin, Janiuay, and Calinog in Iloilo that his attention was called to a long and popular tale called Hinilawod. Portions of the story were sung to him and his colleague by an old man called Ulang Udig.
Returning the following year, together with a radio technician from Central Philippine University, he then recorded a portion of the story on tape in 1956.
However, when he returned, in 1957 to make a recording of the complete story, Ulang Udig refused to cooperate . Weeks later, he was introduced to a mountain singer named Hugan-an, who, after much cajoling, allowed herself to be tape recorded as she recounted both her story and the Hinilawod story. It took three weeks to complete the recording of the 30 hour epic poem.
A concise version of the story of Hinilawod can be found in the book, Philippine Mythology, authored by the Filipino anthropologist, Dr. F. Landa Jocano.

(by ni Macario D. Tiu)
Ang tanan kong gimahal
Akong pil-on makausa
Ug pil-on pag-usab
Ug itago sa usa ka kahon
O sa lungag sa usa ka poste
O sa akong sapatos.
Ang tanan kong gimahal?
Bitaw, para sa karon
Ug sa kahangtoran, kanang duha.
Usa ka butang nga sayon pil-on ug
Sayon tipigon,
Sulat sa anak o mabulokong
korbata ni Papa,
Usa ka karaang retrato sa batan-ong rayna,
Usa ka dakong panyo sa Bombay,
Bisan gani kuwartang papel.
Kadakong himaya
Usa ka kadaogan, kining gahom sa
Sa matag takna
Nga pagamyon ang tanang gugma
Ngadto sa usa ka kumkom,
Hangtod ang mga sigay maoy mga
Buak nga tipaka sa sinaw nga ngipon sa Ginuo,
Ug ang kinabuhi ug gugma maoy
Tinuod nga mga butang nga imong
Idagan ug maghangak kang itunol
Ngadto sa usa ka bata.

Theme: The poem speaks about love; a father’s love, child’s love and romantic love. The image of the bonsai, made beautiful by the care of the caretaker, is present in the words of this poem. It shows also that love is not present and is not necessarily expressed in huge shapes, loud voices, and big things and events. It can be scaled down to its very essence, and presented to the "innocent eyes" of a child. Love, without a doubt, is a huge, monumental feeling/phenomenon/etc., but like I said, it is present in small things and aspects of life. The author is saying in the 4th and 5th stanza that it is better to pinpoint the littlest aspect of love to fully understand it, and she is marvelling at the ability of us human beings into doing so.

the person i will become 10 years from now

It is scary to think of what I will be ten years from now-scary in the sense that I really don’t know what the future will bring. But as a dreamer who has the desire to be somebody in the future, I have a dream to become a successful person. I can see myself ten years from now as a teacher, a mother with a good husband and beautiful children and a good citizen.
As a career woman, ten years from now, I see myself as a successful elementary teacher. Someone, who teaches with enthusiasm and love, I see myself to be a teacher loved by her pupils not just because of imparting my knowledge to them but also because of loving and caring for them too. I will be teaching not just because of the salary but because it is my passion.
I also see myself ten years from with a husband and children. I have a dream to become a good mother and wife someday. I see myself as a mother who prepares meal for her family. Someone that my children will trust for their secrets and problems and a wife my husband will always love and trust.
Ten years from now I also see myself to be a good, abiding citizen. I will obey all the laws of the state. I will make sure that I could contribute something good to my community.
I really hope that my dreams will become reality.

Miyerkules, Mayo 2, 2012

Bata..Bata..Paano Ka Ginawa?


The film Bata, bata Paano Ka Ginawa is a movie which deals not only with the pains a mother and a wife goes through but also with the people around her as well. The movie was originally based on the novel of the same title written by Lualhati Bautista, is such a wonderful story.

II. Theme

Showing empowered, open-minded women who don't let society get in the way or define how they live their lives is the theme of the story. It shows the dynamics of how a woman addresses her marital and familial concerns in the context of a complex, judgmental and flawed society. The novel also illustrates the society’s view of women; how it is to be a mother, and how a mother executes her role through modern-day concepts of parenthood

III. Plot

            The movie began on the graduation day Lea’s daughter Maya in kindergarten. In the beginning of the story, everything in Lea’s life was going smoothly – her relationship with her children, with friends of the opposite gender, and with her volunteer work for a human rights organization. But Lea’s children were both growing-up – and Lea could see their gradual transformation. There were the changes in their ways and personalities: Maya’s curiosity was becoming more obvious every day, while Ojie was crossing the boundaries from boyhood to teenage to adulthood.
 Until Raffy, her former husband came back to persuade Ojie to live with him in the U.S. Lea experienced the fear of losing both her children, when the fathers of her children decide to take them away from her embrace. She also needed to spend more time for work and with the organization she was volunteering for.
In the end, both of Lea’s children decided to choose to stay with her – a decision that Lea never forced upon them. Another graduation day of students was the main event in the novel’s final chapter, where Lea was the guest-of-honor. Lea delivered a speech that discusses the topic of how life evolves, and on how time consumes itself so quickly, as fast as how human beings grow, change, progress and mature. Lea leaves a message to her audience that a graduation day is not an end because it is actually the beginning of everything else that will come in a person’s life.

IV. Characters

  • Lea (Vilma Santos)
She is the protagonist in the story. The character of Lea depicts the character of a modern woman, a modern parent. Lea is a mother of two children with different fathers, Maya and Ojie.
  • Maya (Serena Dalrymple)
Maya is Lea’s youngest child. She is jolly, talkative and full of questions.
  • Ojie (Carlo Aquino)
Ojie is Lea’s eldest child.
  • Ding (Albert Martinez)
Lea’s live-in partner, and was Maya's father. Ding is a mama’s boy.
  • Raffy ( Ariel Rivera)
 Lea’s husband and was Ojie’s father.

  • Johnny (Raymond Bagatsing)
Lea’s fantasy and co-worker

V. Symbolism/ Value

Lea: symbolizes a modern woman
            The character of Lea in the film symbolizes a modern woman, an independent, hard-working versatile mother, wife and employee. The character shows that women can also do the things men do.
The line,“Sana kapag nagniniig ang magasawa, pati ang kanilang kaluluwa”.
            This line tells that sex should not only involve “lust” or physical contact/ relationship but rather should be done because of love, it should involve the soul; the emotional connection between the couple.
The Principal: symbolizes the judgmental society
            The principal portrays a judgmental woman that symbolizes the judgmental and flawed society we are into.

VI. Interpretations

            The movie presented different culture and norms we have in the Philippines. It presented that in the past women in the Philippines normally and simply follows the wills and whims of their husbands and other male members of society. Women were just to act upon their role as mothers who perform household chores, take care of the children, and take care of the needs of their husbands. It also presented close family tight among Filipinos which is evident in the character of Ding who lets his mother decide for him even if he’s old enough and already had his own family. Moreover, it also showed the norm of following and respecting the parents to the point of becoming too dependent from them (Ding, following her mother’s choice of the woman she will marry). The movie also presented the Filipino norm of judging people based on hearsays and wrong impressions. Hospitality is also presented in the movie.

VII. Concluding Remarks

The movie “Bata, Bata Paano Ka Ginawa” is very inspirational especially for woman like me. It inspires me to fight for my rights as a woman, to show that I can also do the things man does. The movie showed that the role of a woman should not only be limited to the four corners of the home. Though it was written during the 1980's, the material still hasn't lost its appeal and connection to the people because of the feminists theme in it.

Sabado, Abril 28, 2012

“Becoming a Filipino with A Deeply Rooted Nationalism Trough Filipino Education”

“BECOMING A FILIPINO WITH A DEEPLY ROOTED NATIONALISM TROUGH FILIPINO EDUCATION” is the strongest point the author is trying to point out in the essay “The Miseducation of the Filipinos”. Renato Constantino repeatedly reiterated that Filipinos lack nationalism because we are trained by Americans to be their colonials and not to become true Filipinos. We are educated based on the American education system, thus embracing the western/American culture caused many to forget about their own culture and became strangers of what they really are as Filipinos; which is evident even until this time.
The issue of nationalism can only be cured if the curriculum planners provide us with an educational system that is truly Filipino. As what the author said, the truest aim of education is to train people of their unique individuality as one nation. Thus, education of the Filipino must be a Filipino education. It must be based on the needs and goals of the nation. Its primary objective is to produce a citizenry that appreciates and is conscious of its nationhood and has national goals for the betterment of the community and not just people who know how to take care of themselves only.
Reality bites, that until now the issue of nationalism and lack of a nationalistic educational system is still existent. It is evident in the subjects offered in school, the overwhelming number of professionals who want to work abroad instead of serving the country, the trend of buying foreign made products like GUCCI, LOUIS VUITTON and many more signature brands than patronizing locally made products. Thus, the essay should still be read by the Filipinos of today to be enlightened by the points discussed in the essay.

Insights: "The Miseducation of the Filipinos"

Reading Renato Constantino’s essay entitled “The Miseducation of the Filipinos” gives me an impression that there’s much more to what we see in these days about the educational system in the Philippines.
There are many concepts presented by the author that has been taken for granted by the leaders, curriculum planners and other key players in the education system in the country. It is evident that no educator has come up with an educational system that is nationalist.
The author emphasizes in the essay that the educational system is patterned in the American educational system which worked in the beginning. But in the end, after we gain our own independence, the context of the educational system no longer worked because it is good only for American framework.
Filipinos were conquered by the Americans through education. Constantino reiterated that capturing the mind is the best means of conquest. Thus, Filipinos were educated by the Americans to become good colonials. Filipinos were taught to write, read, speak in English; Filipinos became literate, but were brain washed and became strangers to their native land; to the culture and history of their own country.
Education was established based on the American framework by the Americans not just for the purpose of educating the Filipinos but also to preserve and control their control to our country.
Filipinos were disoriented to their nationalist goals because they had to become good colonials. The use of English as medium of instruction caused division among the Filipinos; educated were separated from the masses.  “They had to forget their past and unlearn nationalist virtue in order to live peacefully, if not comfortably, under the colonial order.”  Filipinos learned the lives of the American Heroes, sang American Songs and forgot about their past, their culture and from where they belong. They live their life the American way. Filipinos became “LITTLE AMERICANS”.
Economically, politically, culturally, the US is the master of our own house. They lay little emphasis on the kind of nationalism Filipinos need. Americans inculcate to Filipinos since the first grade that they were a benevolent nation who came to the Philippines to save us from Spain, when in fact they were colonizing the country through education. The country was portrayed by Americans as an Agricultural nation that should remain as one. They instill to the Filipino minds that industrialization is not good for them. Our countrymen were pleased of the “STATE SIDE” products and forgot about the products made in the country. Filipinos never thought that they too could industrialize and was left behind by other Asian countries like Japan.
Constantino also contended that because of this American orientation, the new economic emancipation and assertion of political sovereignty pushed our educators to reexamine education’s general approach, values and philosophy. The education of the Filipino must be a Filipino education. It must be based on the needs and goals of the nation. Its primary objective is to produce a citizenry that appreciates and is conscious of its nationhood and has national goals for the betterment of the community and not just people who know how to take care of themselves only. Philippine education therefore must produce Filipinos who are aware of the country’s problems and who understand the basic solutions for these problems. It should also produce Filipinos who care enough and have courage to work and sacrifice for the country.
Reading Reato Constantino’s essay made me realize that there’s more than what we think in our current educational system. There is an unending problem that had strike the foundation of our education curriculum and the worse thing is that it had affected Filipinos massively and extensively. No wonder why students these days no longer want to work in the country which causes brain drain everywhere in the archipelago.
            Reality hurts, but obviously we are a great example of a country that doesn’t seem to have a deeply-rooted sense of nationalism. Many Filipinos prefer foreign songs than OPM songs. Others love signature products (“state side”) than Philippine made stuffs. Many youth don’t even know the history, culture of our dear Philippines. A great number of the population doesn’t care about the social and political issues in the country. Worst of all, many of our leaders think that we cannot progress without the help of other foreign countries, a concrete example is letting the United States of America to intervene with the way our government leaders run our country. The American education stresses the importance of the ability to compete internationally and we simply follow their belief without knowing that our own nationalism is gone.
            I agree when the author said that the truest aim of education is to train people of their unique individuality as one nation. Curriculum planners must come up with a curriculum or educational system that is one hundred percent Filipino. They must provide every Filipino with an educational system that would arouse and develop our nationalism and love for our country. Furthermore, Filipinos should not only go to school to have their diplomas but should also embed to these their desire to graduate and help/serve the country.